Palestinian Riots-Emily Ellison

In the 1920’s, Palestine was known to have riots that took place in British Mandate of Palestine April 4-7, 1920 in the Old City of Jerusalem. These events were renamed after the Muslim holiday, Nabi Musa and followed tensions in Arab-Jewish relations over the attacks on outlying Jewish settlements in the Galilee. The British military failed to respond to these outbreaks that continued on for 4 days. As a result of the failure to respond, the trust between the British, Jews and Arabs gradually faded away. The Jewish Community then took action by increasing moves by using their own power to create their own structure needed and security machinery or weapons equal to that of the British administration.

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Conflict Timeline-Emily Ellison

Periods of the conflict:

Here is a timeline i found online that shows all the phases of the conflict between Palestine and Israel.

Late 19th century-1917: The period of the Ottoman Empire rule in Palestine in which the Arabs in The Ottoman Palestine saw themselves as part of the overall Arab territories which were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. During that period, the disputes were on the basis of religious background and not on national background.

1917-1948: The period of the British Mandate of Palestine, in which both parties were under British rule and under a single political entity, called Palestine in English. During this period significant Jewish immigration from Europe altered the demographic balance. The term “The Israeli–Palestinian conflict” was not used, and instead the conflict was referred to as “the Jewish-Arab conflict over the Land of Palestine” (by the Arab population and the British population), “the Jewish-Arab conflict over Erez-Israel” (by the Jewish population).

1948-1967: The period between the declaration of the State of Israel and the Six-Day War in which the parties resided in three separate political entities: The State of Israel, the Gaza Strip which was controlled by Egypt and the West Bank which was annexed to Jordan.

1967: The Six-Day War: Border clashes between Syria and IsraelFirst Day: Combined air attacks on all fronts by Israel in early morning destroy two-thirds of Arab aircraft.Second Day: Paratroops move from Ammunition Hill to Mt. Scopus (Jerusalem).

Third Day: Old City captured, the West Bank is controlled, and Israeli military government is established.

Fourth Day: Israel reaches Suez Canal.

Fifth Day: Battles continue, mostly up north.

Sixth Day: Cease fire proclaimed, Israel controls Golan Heights and demilitarizes Jerusalem area.

1967-1993: The period between the Six-Day War and the Oslo Accords, in which the conflicted parties reside in the areas addressed by the UN Partition Plan that were under the control of the State of Israel.

1993-2000: The period between the Oslo Accords and the Second Intifada, in which Israel existed alongside the semi-sovereign political autonomy – the Palestinian Authority.

2000–2005: The period between the beginning of the Second Intifada up until 2005, in which Israel returned to perform arresting operations in Area A zones in the West Bank.

2005–Present: The period after Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip. The withdrawal led to the strengthening of Hamas, which in 2006 won an election, then took control over the Gaza Strip.

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Continued Refugees/Conflict- Emily Ellison

 

About 726,000 Palestinians were fled or driven from their homes in 1948-1967 during the Israeli-Arab wars and the creation of Israel as a state. The fate of the estimated four million Palestinians living in refugee communities scattered around the Middle East remains the heart of the conflict between Palestine and Israel. There are 4 million Palestinian refugees registered since 2002 that live in crowded refugee camps in poor conditions in the West Bank, Gaza, in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq. Some displaced Palestinians resettled in other countries where their situation is often precarious. Many remained refugees and continue to reside in refugee camps, including in the Palestinian territories. Palestinians demand that the refugees should have the right to return to their homes in Israel under the UN General Assembly Resolution. Israelis note that an equal number of Jews fled Arab lands to Israel in 1948. Israelis oppose return of the refugees because that would create an Arab Palestinian majority and would put an end to Israel as a Jewish state.

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WWII Conflicts by Rachel Mills

-During WWII the zionist movement focused on rescuing Jews from Nazi forces

-many fled to Palestine, some with visas but the majority were illegal immigrants

-this was a problem because British were trying to keep illegal immigrants out of Palestine in order to be fair to the Arabs

-In 1940 the British army in Palestine were battled when they tried sending refugees back to Nazi Europe

-during this conflict 267 jewish refugees were killed

-a similar conflict occurred in 1942 when 747 Romanian Jews were on a ship awaiting permission to land on the shore of Turkey and travel to Palestine

-they had been packed on the ship for 74 days, but the British authorities wouldnt let them land and encouraged the Turkish government to tow the ship into the Black Sea and Cast it adrift

-the ship was then sunk by a Russian submarine and 796 people were killed

 

-despite Jewish and British tensions many Jewish volunteers served in the british army

-On September 14, 1944 the Jewish Brigade was established

british_palestine_jewish_force_ww2.jpg

 

-The Arabs took the side of the Axis

-Grand Mufti issued a “summon to a holy war against Britain” in May of 1941

-Husseini, a popular Palestinian rebel went to Germany and became an honored guest of the Nazi leadership and was close with Hitler himself

mufti_husseini_1943.jpg

-he strongly opposed the immigration of Jewish refugees into Palestine

-he also intervened when the British government tried trading German POWs for 5,000 jewish children

Husseni didnt want the children fleeing to Palestine when they were released

-the children were instead sent to death camps in Poland

-later Husseini openly supported and encouraged the killing of over 800,000 Yugoslav citizents, 60,000 Jews and 26,000 Roma citizens

-For arab palestinians this was a relatively quiet time during WWII

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_during_ww2.php

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Peace Talks Today

More than 30 years after the Camp David Accords, we are still far from achieving peace in the Middle East. Just yesterday, the Palestinian President met with the Egyptian President, and insisted that there would be no Peace talks while Israel continued to build West Bank settlements. Abbas is in Egypt for talks on the current peace negotiations, although those negotiations are currently in a stalemate. Abbas hopes to walk away from the talks with a position on how to continue, but no one is very optimistic. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is scheduled to talk to the lead Palestinian negotiator soon.

David Sztrom

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Camp David Accords Aftermath

Palestinians rejected the Accords, feeling that they had not been consulted. Even though other Arab nations did not support the Accords, Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement on March 26, 1979. Because of the Camp David Accords, Egypt was viewed differently among Arab countries. At that time, Egypt had the most powerful military among Arab nations, and had the most leverage in advancing Arab interests. Other Arab countries felt that Egypt had not gotten Israel to make enough concessions, and following the Accords, Egypt was suspended from the Arab League. Arab nations were furious with Israel and member countries of the Arab League moved their headquarters from Cairo to Tunis. In addition, 18 Arab countries recalled their ambassadors from Egypt. Just 3 years after signing the Camp David Accords, Sadat was assassinated by fundamentalists. 

David Sztrom

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Camp David Accords

The Camp David Accords was the result of 12 days of secret negotiations at Camp David between Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and were signed on September 17, 1978. The Accords were a set of agreements between Israel and Egypt, and they were seen as a big step towards peace in the Middle East.

In 1977, Sadat visited Israel and spoke at the Israeli parliament. This was important because up until then, no Arab nation had even recognized Israel’s right to exist. Despite Sadat’s gesture, no negotiations came out of the meetings. Months later, President Jimmy Carter invited Sadat and Begin to a presidential retreat at Camp David. After 12 days of talks, Sadat and Begin came to 2 agreements: “A framework for Peace in the Middle East” and “A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel.” Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

David Sztrom

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Ashkenazic, Sephardic and Mizrachi Jews

In Israel today, there is a lot of racism between the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews living there. The Ashkenazi jews are jew of French, German and  European descent. “Ashekanic” comes from the Hebrew word for Germany. While “Sephardic” comes from the Hebrew word for Spain. They are the Jews of the descendants from Portugal, Spain, the Middle East and North Africa. Most Jews in the United States are Ashkenazi. The Mizrachi Jews are of Eastern countries being mainly from North Africa and the Middle East. They are the Jews that were expelled from Spain in 1942 of whom moved to North Africa and the Middle East. In Israel it is split pretty equally among the Mizrachic Jews and Ashkenazic but there is a small minority of Ethiopian Jews . In Israel today, there is a lot of racism going on due to the tension between the different groups. I read a story about such racism. One story read that parents of European Descent or Ashkenazi did not want their children to go to school with the sephardim Jews because they are not as “religious.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/ultraorthodox-jews-accused-of-racism-over-education-demands-2003609.html

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US will not Condone Israel’s Settlement Policy

Recently, Washington has reacted to Israel’s extensions of settlement further into West Bank. Washington State Department official Philip J Crowley stated that the fact that Washington no longer supports a temporary settlement freeze did not mean it condones continued building. It seems that since right when the United States stopped supporting the mentioned temporary settlement freeze, Israel got ready and started building residences in the Palestinian West Bank. After Obama traveled to Palestine and Israel, to speak to representatives of both sides, the President came to the conclusion that the region was not ready for a settlement agreement, even if a new settlement freeze was enforced. According to Washington officials, even though the temporary freeze period ended it does not mean that the US has changed their views on Israeli expansions. As it stands, the agreement conditions are unable to even come near to anything that would make both sides happy. At the moment, it is a huge power struggle in the region and both do not want to lose anything they have.

 

http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/u-s-does-not-will-not-condone-israel-s-settlement-activity-official-says-1.329575

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France vs. Britain

Rachel

The Beginning of Bad Blood

 During World War I France and Great Britain vehemently argued over what was left of the Middle East after the Turkish Ottoman empire fell. Both sides were trying everyway they could to gain support in the Middle Eastern territories they wished to control. All in a battle over more land and more resources. It is evident that the start of conflict over Palestine and what is now Israel began and is recorded by 3 documents: The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence, The Sykes-Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration.

The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence:

  In 1915 the British government called on Hussein bin Ali, the Sharif of Mecca. They promised him a large Arab country, also hinting at the inclusion of Palestine, to rule over in return for his support and loyalty for Great Britain. This is known as the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence. Which turned out to be a very controversial promise, not to be kept.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement:

  In 1916 an agreement was made between France and Great Britain over the land in the Middle East. This agreement also stated that both the French and British would have freedom of transit in each other’s areas and there would be no discrimination of goods.

Here is a map of the different French and British areas:

Notice the most crucial area on this map Palestine including Jerusalem are in purple, this signifies neutrality. French and Britain wanted it so bad that neither could approve an arrangement over who would get this little area, so they left it neutral.  But all the while the British were having secret meetings and negotiations over how to gain control of Palestine. One of their greatest attempts was by reaching out to the Zionist movement in England.

The Balfour Declaration

  In 1917 Foreign Secretary of the British government, Arthur James Balfour, sent a formal statement to Baron Rothschild:

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

“His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,

Arthur James Balfour

http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/The%20Balfour%20Declaration

  Upon receiving this letter Rothschild immediately went to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland to speak with their leaders Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Soholow. Since the Zionists believed in returning to the holy land (which was then Palestine/Jerusalem), this was a great achievement for their followers.

  It seems as though this is a nice gesture of support by the British government but in reality one can believe they were telling the Jews of England this so that they would be encouraged to emigrate to Palestine, in turn giving the British more support where it was desperately needed.

All in all it is evident that Great Britain, due to their political and imperialistic agenda, had no intentions of honoring their promises to the Arabs and were instead committed to the Zionists.

  Every year on November 2, Israel has a celebration commemorating the anniversary of the Balfour declaration known as Balfour Day. This day is also believed to be a day of mourning in most Arab countries still today.

  A closing quote:

“Alot of the problems we are having to deal with now are a consequence of our colonial past. The Balfour Declaration and contradictory assurances were being given to Palestinians in private, at the same time as they were being given to the Israelis- again, an interesting history for us but not an entirely honorable one.” – Jack Straw, British Foreign Secretary, 2002

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